Aims: To test the applicability of the Blaivas-Groutz nomogram for female bladder outlet obstruction in urinary incontinent women presenting in a general gynecologic practice and to determine how the nomogram results related to the presence of obstructive symptoms according to a standardized questionnaire. Methods: All women with complaints of urinary incontinence underwent multichannel urodynamic testing, free uroflowmetry and were asked to complete a standardized quality of life questionnaire consisting of the urogenital distress inventory (UDI). The patients were classified according to the Blaivas-Groutz nomogram. Results: One hundred and nine patients were classified according to the nomogram. Thirty-three patients (30.3%) were classified as unobstructed, 63 patients (57.8%) as mildly, 12 patients (11%) as moderately, and 1 patient (0.9%) was classified as severely obstructed. Fifty patients correctly completed the UDI. There was no significant difference (P = 0.61) in the score on the domain UDI obstruction between, according to the nomogram, obstructed and unobstructed patients. Only 18% of the obstructed patients had isolated voiding symptoms suggestive of obstruction. Forty-nine percent of the obstructed patients had urgency-frequency symptoms as well as voiding symptoms suggestive of obstruction. There was no correlation (Pearson, r = -0.06, P = 0.61) between the severity of the symptoms (assessed by the UDI scale) and the degree of obstruction (the four nomogram zones). Conclusions: Application of the Blaivas-Groutz nomogram gave an unlikely high prevalence of obstruction in our patient group, which showed no correlation with symptoms when measured with the UDI.

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Keywords Bladder outlet obstruction, Female, Nomogram, UDI, Urodynamics
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Journal Neurourology and Urodynamics
Massolt, E.T, Groen, J.M, & Vierhout, M.E. (2005). Application of the Blaivas-Groutz bladder outlet obstruction nomogram in women with urinary incontinence. Neurourology and Urodynamics, 24(3), 237–242. doi:10.1002/nau.20107