Aims: To test the applicability of the Blaivas-Groutz nomogram for female bladder outlet obstruction in urinary incontinent women presenting in a general gynecologic practice and to determine how the nomogram results related to the presence of obstructive symptoms according to a standardized questionnaire. Methods: All women with complaints of urinary incontinence underwent multichannel urodynamic testing, free uroflowmetry and were asked to complete a standardized quality of life questionnaire consisting of the urogenital distress inventory (UDI). The patients were classified according to the Blaivas-Groutz nomogram. Results: One hundred and nine patients were classified according to the nomogram. Thirty-three patients (30.3%) were classified as unobstructed, 63 patients (57.8%) as mildly, 12 patients (11%) as moderately, and 1 patient (0.9%) was classified as severely obstructed. Fifty patients correctly completed the UDI. There was no significant difference (P = 0.61) in the score on the domain UDI obstruction between, according to the nomogram, obstructed and unobstructed patients. Only 18% of the obstructed patients had isolated voiding symptoms suggestive of obstruction. Forty-nine percent of the obstructed patients had urgency-frequency symptoms as well as voiding symptoms suggestive of obstruction. There was no correlation (Pearson, r = -0.06, P = 0.61) between the severity of the symptoms (assessed by the UDI scale) and the degree of obstruction (the four nomogram zones). Conclusions: Application of the Blaivas-Groutz nomogram gave an unlikely high prevalence of obstruction in our patient group, which showed no correlation with symptoms when measured with the UDI.

Bladder outlet obstruction, Female, Nomogram, UDI, Urodynamics,
Neurourology and Urodynamics
Department of Gynaecology & Obstetrics

Massolt, E.T, Groen, J.M, & Vierhout, M.E. (2005). Application of the Blaivas-Groutz bladder outlet obstruction nomogram in women with urinary incontinence. Neurourology and Urodynamics, 24(3), 237–242. doi:10.1002/nau.20107