Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate renal, vascular, and urinary tract visualization following a single postcontrast multidetector computed tomographic (CT) urographic sequence performed with three limited-volume bolus injections. Materials and Methods: The institutional review board approved this retrospective study. Patient informed consent was waived. Triple-bolus multidetector CT urography was performed in 110 patients. Triple-bolus protocol consisted of 30 mL of contrast material at 2 mL/sec at 0 seconds, 50 mL at 1.5 mL/sec at 435 seconds, 65 mL at 3 mL/sec at 488 seconds, with total abdominal scanning time of 510 seconds. Two independent readers rated urinary tract opacification and qualitatively and quantitatively assessed renal parenchymal and vascular contrast enhancement. Upper urinary tract (UUT) distention was measured by one reader. Interobserver agreement was assessed by using κ statistics. Results: Complete opacification of the intrarenal collecting system and proximal ureter was achieved in 91% (184 of 202) (κ = 0.62) and 82% (166 of 202) (κ = 0.94) of segments, respectively. The distal ureter was not opacified in 21% of the cases (κ = 0.92), and the bladder was not opacified in 20% of the cases. Mean distention was higher for proximal (3.9 mm) than for distal (3.7 mm) segments. Image quality of renal parenchymal enhancement was excellent in 76% of cases. Arteries showed better contrast enhancement than veins (excellent rating in 89% vs 59% of the cases). Radiation dose calculated for triple-bolus acquisition was 9.8 mSv. Conclusion: Triple-bolus multidetector CT urography is a dose-efficient protocol acquiring corticomedullary-nephrographic-excretory and vascular enhancement phases in a single acquisition and provides sufficient opacification and distention of the UUT. Simultaneously, adequate image quality of renal parenchyma and vascular anatomy is achieved.

dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.09082074, hdl.handle.net/1765/68129
Department of Urology

Kekelidze, M, Dwarkasing, R.S, Dijkshoorn, M.L, Sikorska, K, Verhagen, P.C.M.S, & Krestin, G.P. (2010). Kidney and urinary tract imaging: Triple-bolus multidetector CT urography as a one-stop shop - Protocol design, opacification, and image quality analysis. Radiology, 255(2), 508–516. doi:10.1148/radiol.09082074