Aims The relation of disease progression and age, serum interleukin10 (IL-10) and interferon gamma (IFNγ) and their genetic correlates were studied in paediatric patients with newly diagnosed Type1 diabetes. Methods Two hundred and twenty-seven patients from the Hvidoere Study Group were classified in four different progression groups as assessed by change in stimulated C-peptide from 1 to 6months. CA repeat variants of the IL-10 and IFNγ gene were genotyped and serum levels of IL-10 and IFNγ were measured at 1, 6 and 12months. Results IL-10 decreased (P<0.001) by 7.7% (1month), 10.4% (6months) and 8.6% (12months) per year increase in age of child, while a twofold higher C-peptide concentration at 1month (p=0.06), 6months (P=0.0003) and 12months (P=0.02) was associated with 9.7%, 18.6% and 9.7% lower IL-10 levels, independent of each other. IL-10 concentrations did not associate with the disease progression groups. By contrast, IFNγ concentrations differed between the four progression groups at 6 and 12months (P=0.02 and P=0.01, respectively); patients with rapid progressing disease had the highest levels at both time points. Distribution of IL-10 and IFNγ genotypes was equal among patients from the progression groups. Conclusion IL-10 serum levels associate inversely with age and C-peptide. As age and C-peptide also associate, a triangular association is proposed. Genetic influence on IL-10 production seems to be masked by distinct disease mechanisms. Increased serum IFNγ concentrations associate with rapid disease progression. Functional genetic variants do not associate with a single progression pattern group, implying that disease processes override genetically predisposed cytokine production.

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Diabetic Medicine: journal of diabetes UK
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Kaas, A., Pfleger, C., Kharagjitsingh, A. V., Schloot, N., Hansen, L., Buschard, K., … Åman, J. (2012). Association between age, IL-10, IFNγ, stimulated C-peptide and disease progression in children with newly diagnosed Type1 diabetes. Diabetic Medicine: journal of diabetes UK, 29(6), 734–741. doi:10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03544.x