In the early development of type 1 diabetes macrophages and dendritic cells accumulate around the islets of Langerhans at sites of fibronectin expression. It is thought that these macrophages and dendritic cells are derived from blood monocytes. Previously, we showed an increased serum level of MRP8/ 14 in type 1 diabetes patients that induced healthy monocytes to adhere more strongly to fibronectin (FN). Here we show that MRP8/14 is expressed and produced at a higher level by type 1 diabetes monocytes, particularly after adhesion to FN, creating a positive feedback mechanism for a high fibronectin-adhesive capacity. Also adhesion to endothelial cells was increased in type 1 diabetes monocytes. Despite this increased adhesion the transendothelial migration of monocytes of type 1 diabetes patients was decreased towards the proinflammatory chemokines CCL2 and CCL3. Because non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse monocytes show a similar defective proinflammatory migration, we argue that an impaired monocyte migration towards proinflammatory chemokines might be a hallmark of autoimmune diabetes. This hampered monocyte response to proinflammatory chemokines questions whether the early macrophage and dendritic cell accumulation in the diabetic pancreas originates from an inflammatory-driven influx of monocytes. We also show that the migration of type 1 diabetes monocytes towards the lymphoid tissue-related CCL19 was increased and correlated with an increased CCR7 surface expression on the monocytes. Because NOD mice show a high expression of these lymphoid tissue-related chemokines in the early pancreas it is more likely that the early macrophage and dendritic cell accumulation in the diabetic pancreas is related to an aberrant high expression of lymphoid tissue-related chemokines in the pancreas.

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Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Department of Immunology

Bouma, G., Coppens, J., Lam-Tse, W. K., Luini, W., Sintnicolaas, K., Levering, W. H. B. M., … Versnel, M. (2005). An increased MRP8/14 expression and adhesion, but a decreased migration towards proinflammatory chemokines of type 1 diabetes monocytes. Clinical and Experimental Immunology, 141(3), 509–517. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2249.2005.02865.x