Effective coastal zone management requires regulations of various forms. Inevitably, some of these have an impact on seaports. Understandably, regulations that may weaken the competitive position of a seaport are difficult to implement. The stakeholders of ports are well aware of their local, regional, and national economic impact. These stakeholders proclaim the need to ensure a level playing field between ports and oppose regulations that distort it and damage their competitive position. If possible, regulations should be developed in such a way that the playing field between ports remains level. For this to be arranged, an analysis of the effects of regulations on the playing field is needed. This article contains an analysis of the effects of different charging systems for waste disposal on the playing field between three leading North West European ports. First, a framework to analyze the distortions of the playing field is described. Second, the framework is applied to charging systems for waste disposal. This analysis reveals substantial differences in charging systems and shows that these differences distort the playing field. The distortion puts pressure on ports not to introduce the most environmentally friendly charging system. In the concluding section, alternative policy options to align the need for protecting the marine environment with the need to ensure a level playing field are discussed.

Europe, Level playing field ports, Waste disposal
dx.doi.org/10.1080/08920750701682064, hdl.handle.net/1765/68900
Coastal Management
Erasmus School of Economics

de Langen, P.W, & Nijdam, M.H. (2008). Charging systems for waste reception facilities in ports and the level playing field. Coastal Management, 36(1), 109–124. doi:10.1080/08920750701682064