Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) includes dysfunctional conditions of the heart and of the blood vessel system (arteries, veins, and capillaries) that among other functions supply oxygen to all body tissues and organs, including vital life-sustaining areas like the brain and the heart itself. Coronary heart disease and stroke are the principal components of CVD. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. It is on the rise and has become a true pandemic that respect no borders. This thesis presents studies on different areas of the epidemiology of CVD and its prevention. Three specific research questions were investigated: 1. What is the effect of risk factors for cardiovascular disease such as physical inactivity and hypertension, in terms of life expectancy and years lived with and without cardiovascular disease? 2. What is the cost-effectiveness of various strategies for cardiovascular risk management and which one is the most cost-effective in the primary prevention of CVD? 3. Could the polypill be a cost-effective intervention in the primary prevention of CVD, and what could be a good alternative to the polypill in populations free of heart disease?