Menstrual cycle and its disorders in women with congenital heart disease
Congenital Heart Disease , Volume 3 - Issue 4 p. 277- 283
Objectives. To investigate the age at menarche, the prevalence of menstrual cycle (interval) disorders, and determinants in women with congenital heart disease (CHD). Design. Using two CHD registries, 1802 (82%) of the 2196 women with CHD contacted (aged 18-58 years) provided written informed consent. After exclusion of patients with genetic disorders known to be associated with menstrual cycle disorders, 1593 eligible patients remained. Interviews by telephone and reviews of medical records were conducted. Results. Overall, the age at menarche was slightly increased in women with CHD (13.3 vs. 13.1 years in the general population), mainly attributable to an increased prevalence of primary amenorrhea (n = 147; 9.2%). Other menstrual cycle disorders were documented: Secondary amenorrhea (n = 181, 11.4%), polymenorrhea (n = 103, 6.5%), oligomenorrhea (n = 90, 5.6%), and menorrhagia (n = 117, 6.5%). The occurrence of these disorders also depended on the presence of cyanotic heart disease, surgical status, the number of surgical interventions, and the severity of CHD. Discussion. Menstrual cycle disturbances, in particular primary amenorrhea, were frequently observed in this population. Patients with complex (cyanotic) heart disease needing repeated surgical interventions prior to menarche are especially at risk.
|Congenital Heart Disease|
|Organisation||Department of Cardiology|
Drenthen, W, Hoendermis, E.S, Moons, P, Heida, K.Y, Roos-Hesselink, J.W, Mulder, B.J.M, … Pieper, P.G. (2008). Menstrual cycle and its disorders in women with congenital heart disease. Congenital Heart Disease, 3(4), 277–283. doi:10.1111/j.1747-0803.2008.00202.x