The aim of this study is to visualize in a scheme all factors that are part of or influence the human-product interaction in minimally invasive surgery (MIS). The factors involved in the interaction are identified and investigated by means of literature studies, product information from producers and retailers, and by observation of MIS procedures. An interaction scheme has been compiled which encompasses the following factors: • A product factor, divided into the surgical functions of image visualization, workspace creation, tissue treatment, tissue assessment, and procedure support. • A human factor, divided into the functions of perception, cognition, and action. • Internal factors (perceptional, cognitive, and action) and external factors (social, political, physical, clinical, and technological) that influence the interaction. Two product examples are used to demonstrate the use of the interaction scheme. The results show that when the design of a product focuses on limited factors, problems arise related to those factors which are not considered. The interaction scheme is a new way to represent the human-product interaction in MIS. It can be used to structure and to gain insight into problems that occur with the use of MIS products. The scheme also elucidates the factors that are involved in the interaction so that they can be considered in product and operating room design.

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Minimally Invasive Therapy and Allied Technologies
Department of Surgery

van Veelen, M.A, Goossens, R.H.M, & Meijer, D.W. (2004). Development of a scheme which visualizes the human-product interaction in minimally invasive surgery. Minimally Invasive Therapy and Allied Technologies, 13(2), 114–123. doi:10.1080/13645700410026984