This paper deals with the changing role of terminal operating companies (TOCs) in supply chains. Relevant trends in the port industry and the consequences for terminal operators are discussed. A framework to analyse strategies of TOCs, based on Brewer's [2001 Handbook of logistics and supply chain management. Amsterdam: Pergamon.] classification of logistics service providers with regard to their geographical coverage and provision of integrated logistics solution is developed. The framework is applied to TOCs in the Netherlands with the use of a survey. TOCs in the Netherlands increasingly offer integrated logistics services. The number of additional services, next to the terminal services, offered depends on the commodities that are handled by TOCs; container TOCs offer fewer integrated logistics services than breakbulk TOCs. Most of the TOCs (still) operate in their 'home port' alone but roughly 15% of them have plans to expand internationally. TOCs mostly provide additional services in-house, partnerships are less well developed. These conclusions enhance the understanding of the changing role of TOCs in supply chains.

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International Journal of Logistics: research and applications
Erasmus School of Economics

de Langen, P.W, & Chouly, A. (2009). Strategies of terminal operating companies in changing environments. International Journal of Logistics: research and applications, 12(6), 423–434. doi:10.1080/13675560902775725