Purpose: To design and validate a desktop virtual reality (VR) system, for presentation and assessment of volumetric data, based on commercially off-the-shelf hardware as an alternative to a fully immersive CAVE-like I-Space VR system. Methods: We designed a desktop VR system, using a three-dimensional (3D) monitor and a six degrees-of-freedom tracking system. A personal computer uses the V-Scope (Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands) volume-rendering application, developed for the I-Space, to create a hologram of volumetric data. Inter- and intraobserver reliability for crown-rump length and embryonic volume measurements are investigated using Bland-Altman plots and intraclass correlation coefficients. Time required for the measurements was recorded. Results: Comparing the I-Space and the desktop VR system, the mean difference for crown-rump length is -0.34% (limits of agreement -2.58-1.89, ±2.24%) and for embryonic volume -0.92% (limits of agreement -6.97-5.13, ±6.05%). Intra- and interobserver intraclass correlation coefficients of the desktop VR system were all >0.99. Measurement times were longer on the desktop VR system compared with the I-Space, but the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions: A user-friendly desktop VR system can be put together using commercially off-the-shelf hardware at an acceptable price. This system provides a valid and reliable method for embryonic length and volume measurements and can be used in clinical practice.

Additional Metadata
Keywords Image processing, Reproducibility, Three-dimensional ultrasound, Virtual reality, Volume measurement
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcu.22207, hdl.handle.net/1765/72991
Journal Journal of Clinical Ultrasound
Citation
Baken, L, van Gruting, I.M, Steegers, E.A.P, van der Spek, P.J, Exalto, N, & Koning, A.H.J. (2014). Design and validation of a 3D virtual reality desktop system for sonographic length and volume measurements in early pregnancy evaluation. Journal of Clinical Ultrasound. doi:10.1002/jcu.22207