Malonyl-CoA decarboxylase (MCD) deficiency is an extremely rare inborn error of metabolism that presents with metabolic acidosis, hypoglycemia, and/or cardiomyopathy. Patients also show neurological signs and symptoms that have been infrequently reported. We describe a girl with MCD deficiency, whose brain MRI shows white matter abnormalities and additionally diffuse pachygyria and periventricular heterotopia, consistent with a malformation of cortical development. MLYCD-gene sequence analysis shows normal genomic sequence but no messenger product, suggesting an abnormality of transcription regulation. Our patient has strikingly low appetite, which is interesting in the light of the proposed role of malonyl-CoA in the regulation of feeding control, but this remains to be confirmed in other patients. Considering the incomplete understanding of the role of metabolic pathways in brain development, patients with MCD deficiency should be evaluated with brain MRI and unexplained malformations of cortical development should be reason for metabolic screening.

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Keywords Malformation of cortical development, Malonyl-CoA decarboxylase deficiency, MLYCD, Neuronal migration
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Journal Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
de Wit, M.C.Y, de Coo, I.F.M, Verbeek, E, Schot, R, Schoonderwoerd, G.C, Duran, M, … Mancini, G.M.S. (2006). Brain abnormalities in a case of malonyl-CoA decarboxylase deficiency. Molecular Genetics and Metabolism, 87(2), 102–106. doi:10.1016/j.ymgme.2005.09.009