Aims: To review the development and current status of balloon catheter mediated hypoxic perfusion of abdomen, pelvis and liver for treatment of locally advanced malignancies. Within this context we focus on the addition of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) to these minimal invasive perfusion procedures. Methods: A literature search on these topics was carried out in PubMed for indexed articles and in all issues of Regional Cancer Treatment. The findings were related to our own experiences. Results: Hypoxic abdominal (HAP) and hypoxic pelvic perfusion (HPP) using balloon catheters, are currently applied modalities for treatment of a wide variety of abdominal and pelvic tumours, yet scientific validation of these procedures is poor. Following the results of several Phase I-II trials, both treatments are associated with severe systemic toxicity, significant morbidity and even mortality. The degree of systemic leakage associated with these procedures prohibits addition of TNF. For leakage free liver perfusion surgery is still required, as with current balloon catheter techniques it is not possible to perform leakage free isolated hypoxic hepatic perfusion (IHHP), using either orthograde or retrograde hepatic flow. Experimental and clinical observations suggest that within any perfusion setting, the utilization of TNF is only indicated for treatment of highly vascularised tumours and not for treatment of colorectal tumours. Conclusion: Balloon catheter technology in its present form does not provide adequate leakage control in any of these settings and is therefore associated with considerable toxicity. It is associated with poor response rates and cannot be considered in any setting as a standard of care.

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Keywords Abdomen, Balloon catheters, Hypoxic perfusion, Liver, Pelvis, Review, Stop-flow, TNF
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Journal European Journal of Surgical Oncology
van IJken, M.G.A, van Etten, B, Brunstein, F, ten Hagen, T.L.M, Guetens, G, de Wilt, J.H.W, … Eggermont, A.M.M. (2005). Biochemotherapeutic strategies and the (dis) utility of hypoxic perfusion of liver, abdomen and pelvis using balloon catheter techniques. European Journal of Surgical Oncology (Vol. 31, pp. 807–816). doi:10.1016/j.ejso.2005.02.032