The effect of repeated testing on delayed relearning of paired associates was investigated. Participants learned two lists of Lithuanian-Dutch word pairs until reaching the criterion of one correct recall from long-term memory. In one condition, items subsequently received three post-retrieval study trials and in the other condition items received three post-retrieval test trials. Participants returned one week later for delayed recall and relearning. Post-retrieval test trials resulted in better delayed recall performance than post-retrieval study trials. Moreover, we found that the items that were repeatedly studied or tested one week prior to relearning were relearned faster than a new set of similar (not previously presented) items. Most importantly, items were relearned faster when they had previously been learned under conditions of post-retrieval testing than items learned under conditions of post-retrieval study. Taken together, the results indicate that the benefits of repeated testing are not just limited to conscious recall on a delayed test. Repeated testing during initial learning is also a very effective strategy to enhance delayed relearning.

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Keywords Delayed relearning, Learning to criterion, Repeated testing, The testing effect
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Journal Journal of Cognitive Psychology
de Jonge, M, Tabbers, H.K, & Rikers, R.M.J.P. (2014). Retention beyond the threshold: Test-enhanced relearning of forgotten information. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 26(1), 58–64. doi:10.1080/20445911.2013.858721