The research on T cell immunosuppression therapies has attracted most of the attention in clinical transplantation. However, B cells and humoral immune responses are increasingly acknowledged as crucial mediators of chronic allograft rejection. Indeed, humoral immune responses can lead to renal allograft rejection even in patients whose cell-mediated immune responses are well controlled. On the other hand, newly studied B cell subsets with regulatory effects have been linked to tolerance achievement in transplantation. Better understanding of the regulatory and effector B cell responses may therefore lead to new therapeutic approaches. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are arising as a potent therapeutic tool in transplantation due to their regenerative and immunomodulatory properties.The research on MSCs has mainly focused on their effects on T cells and although data regarding the modulatory effects of MSCs on alloantigen-specific humoral response in humans is scarce, it has been demonstrated that MSCs significantly affect B cell functioning. In the present review we will analyze and discuss the results in this field.

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Keywords B cells, Chronic allograft rejection, Humoral rejection, Immunomodulation, MSC
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Journal Frontiers in Immunology
Franquesa, M, Hoogduijn, M.J, Bestard, O, & Grinyo, J. (2012). Immunomodulatory effect of mesenchymal stem cells on B cells. Frontiers in Immunology, 3(JUL). doi:10.3389/fimmu.2012.00212