Background and objectives Many children receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation develop AKI. If AKI leads to permanent nephron loss, it may increase the risk of developing CKD. The prevalence of CKD and hypertension and its predictive factors during long-term follow-up of children and adolescents previously treated with neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation were determined. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Between November of 2010 and February of 2014, neonatal survivors of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation who visited the prospective follow-up program at 1, 2, 5, 8, 12, and 18 years of age were screened for CKD and hypertension (BP³95th percentile of reference values). CKD was suspected in children with either an eGFR<90 ml/min per 1.73 m2 or proteinuria (urinary protein-tocreatinine ratio >0.50 for children ages £24 months and >0.20 at >24 months). The RIFLE classification (risk, injury, or failure as 150%, 200%, or 300% of serum creatinine reference values) was used to define AKI during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation without preemptive hemofiltration. Results Median follow-up of 169 screened participants was 8.2 years (interquartile range=5.2–12.1 years). Nine children had a lower eGFR, but all rates were >60 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Proteinuria was observed in 20 children (median=0.26 mg protein/mg creatinine; interquartile range=0.23–0.32 mg protein/mg creatinine), and 32 children had hypertension. Only history of AKI was associated with CKD (P=0.004). Children with RIFLE scores injury and failure had 4.3 times higher odds of CKD signs or hypertension than those without AKI (95% confidence interval, 1.6 to 12.1; P=0.004). Conclusions Altogether, 54 participants (32%) had at least one sign of CKD and/or hypertension. However, most values were marginally abnormal, with no immediate consequences for clinical care. Nevertheless, a prevalence of 32% clearly indicates that survivors of neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, especially those with AKI, are at risk of a more rapid decline of kidney function with increasing age. Therefore, screening for CKD development in adulthood is recommended.

Additional Metadata
Keywords CKD, acute renal, children, clinical nephrology, epidemiology and outcomes, failure
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.2215/CJN.02890314, hdl.handle.net/1765/78060
Journal Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
Zwiers, A.J.M, IJsselstijn, H, van Rosmalen, J.M, Gischler, S.J, de Wildt, S.N, Tibboel, D, & Cransberg, K. (2014). CKD and hypertension during long-term follow-up in children and adolescents previously treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 9(12), 2070–2078. doi:10.2215/CJN.02890314