Multidimensional scaling (MDS) is a technique that visualizes dissimilarities between pairs of objects as distances between points in a low dimensional space. In symbolic MDS, a dissimilarity is not just a value but can represent an interval or even a histogram. Here, we present an overview of developments for symbolic MDS. We discuss how interval dissimilarities they can be represented by (concentric) circles or rectangles, how replications can be represented by a three-way MDS version, and show how nested intervals of distances can be obtained for representing histogram dissimilarities. The various models are illustrated by empirical examples.

Additional Metadata
Keywords MDS, Multidimensional Scaling
Publisher Erasmus School of Economics
Persistent URL hdl.handle.net/1765/78189
Series Econometric Institute Research Papers
Groenen, P.J.F, & Terada, Y. (2015). Symbolic Multidimensional Scaling (No. EI 2015-15). Econometric Institute Research Papers. Erasmus School of Economics. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1765/78189