Necessary Condition Analysis (NCA) is an approach and data analysis technique for identifying necessary conditions in datasets. It can complement traditional regression-based data analysis as well as methods like QCA (see the NCA website for more information on NCA). This guide helps a novice user without knowledge of R or NCA to install the free R and NCA software on the user’s computer and to perform an NCA analysis within 15 minutes. The main instructions are:

I. Install R

II. Install NCA

III. Load data

IV. Run NCA.

Details of the method can be found in:

  • Dul, J. (2016) Necessary Condition Analysis (NCA). Logic and Methodology of 'Necessary but not Sufficient' causality. Organizational Research Methods 19(1), 10-52. Sage

  • Dul, J. (2020), Conducting Necessary Condition Analysis, Sage Publications, ISBN: 9781526460141. Sage

  • Dul, J., van der Laan, E., & Kuik, R. (2020). A statistical significance test for Necessary Condition Analysis. Organizational Research Methods, 23(2), 385-395. Sage

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Rotterdam School of Management (RSM), Erasmus University

Dul, J. (2024). Necessary Condition Analysis (NCA) with R (version 4.0.0). Retrieved from