Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of pAmpC beta-lactamases in community-acquired Gram negative bacteria in the Netherlands, and to identify possible risk factors for carriage of these strains. Methods: Fecal samples were obtained from community-dwelling volunteers. Participants also returned a questionnaire for analysis of risk factors. Screening for pAmpC was performed with selective enrichment broth and a selective screening agar. Confirmation of AmpC-production was performed with two double disc combination tests: cefotaxime and ceftazidime with either boronic acid or cloxacillin as inhibitor. Multiplex PCR was used as gold standard for detection of pAmpC. 16S rRNA PCR and AFLP were performed as required, plasmids were identified by PCR-based replicon typing. Questionnaire results were analyzed with SPSS, version 20.0. Results: Fecal samples were obtained from 550 volunteers; mean age 51 years (range: 18-91), 61% were females. pAmpC was present in seven E. coli isolates (7/550, 1.3%, 0.6-2.7 95% CI): six CMY-2-like pAmpC and one DHA. ESBL-encoding genes were found in 52/550 (9.5%, 7.3-12.2 95% CI) isolates; these were predominantly blaCTX-M genes. Two isolates had both ESBL and pAmpC. Admission to a hospital in the previous year was the only risk factor we identified. Conclusions: Our data indicate that the prevalence of pAmpC in the community seems still low. However, since pAmpC-producing isolates were not identified as ESBL producers by routine algorithms, there is consistent risk that further increase of their prevalence might go undetected.

doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113033, hdl.handle.net/1765/78941
Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases

Reuland, E. A., Halaby, T. (Teysir), Hays, J., Vermeulen-de Jongh, D., Snetselaar, H.D.R. (Henrieke D. R.), Van Keulen, M. (Marte), … Al Naiemi, N. (Nashwan). (2015). Plasmid-mediated AmpC. PLoS ONE, 10(1). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0113033