In this paper, Serena Cruz and Helen Hintjens propose that in the Democratic Republic of Congo the unholy alliance of economic interests, forced labour, sexual predation, and killings that King Leopold of Belgium established from 1884 onwards resulted in structures of predatory, violence-based capital accumulation that persist today. They discuss how this influences the lives of women on the ground, as well as the ways that the status quo is being challenged.

Cruz, S., & Hintjens, H. (2015). What’s Sexual Violence Got to do with the Economy? The case of the DRC. Women, Peace & Security: Business as usual. Retrieved from