Purpose of review This article describes the current best available evidence on optimal nutrition in the paediatric intensive care based on different levels of outcome, which can be divided in surrogate and hard clinical outcome parameters.
Recent findings Undernutrition is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, whereas in specific cohorts of critically ill children, such as those with burn injury, obesity is associated with more complications, longer length of stay, and decreased likelihood of survival. There is a relation with adequacy of delivery of enteral nutrition and the amount of protein on length of hospital stay, neurological status, and mortality. Studies relating organ function, other than skin healing after thermal injury, with the nutritional status are scarce. There is also a scarcity of data concerning long-term follow-up and health economics.
Summary Until now, there are no randomized controlled trials which have investigated a causal relation between different feeding regimens on the nutritional status and short and long-term outcome. As a result current optimal nutritional strategies are based on small trials with surrogate outcome parameters. Prospective randomized studies are needed with nutritional and/or metabolic interventions to come to an optimal feeding strategy for critically ill children.

body composition, critical illness, health economics, long-term outcome, malnutrition
dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0000000000000258, hdl.handle.net/1765/81270
Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Department of Pediatrics

Joosten, K.F.M, van Puffelen, E, & Verbruggen, S.C.A.T. (2016). Optimal nutrition in the paediatric ICU. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care (Vol. 19, pp. 131–137). doi:10.1097/MCO.0000000000000258