Objectives To investigate the medical costs and productivity costs of voice symptoms among teachers and to assess the contribution of the characteristics of voice symptoms, sociodemographic characteristics, health conditions, and work-related factors to these costs. Study design This is a cross-sectional study. Methods In 2012, we conducted a longitudinal study in 12 public schools in Bogotá D.C., Colombia. This study is focused on cross-sectional results obtained in the first stage of the data collection process. Participants filled out a questionnaire on sociodemographics, voice symptoms, work-related conditions, use of health care, productivity loss at work, and sickness absence. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to explore associations among health care use, voice-related absenteeism and productivity loss with duration and severity of voice symptoms, sociodemographic characteristics, health conditions, and work-related factors. Results In total, 621 Colombian teachers participated in this research, 438 of whom had self-reported voice complaints and who therefore made up the study population. Total medical costs and productivity costs due to presence of voice symptoms among teachers with voice complaints equaled around 37% of their monthly wage. Approximately, 3% of the costs were direct costs for health care use, and 97% were indirect costs for productivity losses. Severity of voice symptoms was significantly associated with health care use and absenteeism. Conclusions Voice symptoms among teachers have important economic consequences because of health care use, voice-related absenteeism, and productivity loss at work.

Absenteeism, Health care costs, Productivity loss, Teacher, Voice symptoms
dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvoice.2015.01.005, hdl.handle.net/1765/81565
The Journal of Voice
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Cantor Cutiva, L.C, & Burdorf, A. (2015). Medical Costs and Productivity Costs Related to Voice Symptoms in Colombian Teachers. The Journal of Voice, 29(6), 776.e15–776.e22. doi:10.1016/j.jvoice.2015.01.005