Throughout life, bone is continuously remodelled. Bone is formed by osteoblasts, from mesenchymal origin, while osteoclasts induce bone resorption. This process is tightly regulated. During inflammation, several growth factors and cytokines are increased inducing osteoclast differentiation and activation, and chronic inflammation is a condition that initiates systemic bone loss. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory auto-immune disease that is characterised by active synovitis and is associated with early peri-articular bone loss. Peri-articular bone loss precedes focal bone erosions, which may progress to bone destruction and disability. The incidence of generalised osteoporosis is associated with the severity of arthritis in RA and increased osteoporotic vertebral and hip fracture risk. In this review, we will give an overview of different animal models of inflammatory arthritis related to RA with focus on bone erosion and involvement of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, a humanised endochondral ossification model will be discussed, which can be used in a translational approach to answer osteoimmunological questions.

Arthritis, Cytokine, IL-17, Inflammation, Osteoblast, Osteoclast
dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12016-015-8522-7, hdl.handle.net/1765/81588
Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology
Department of Immunology

Alves, C.H, Farrell, E, Vis, M, Colin, E.M, & Lubberts, E.W. (2016). Animal Models of Bone Loss in Inflammatory Arthritis: from Cytokines in the Bench to Novel Treatments for Bone Loss in the Bedside—a Comprehensive Review. Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology (Vol. 51, pp. 27–47). doi:10.1007/s12016-015-8522-7