Lung stress and strain calculations in mechanically ventilated patients in the intensive care unit
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica: an international journal of anaesthesiology and intensive care, pain and emergency medicine , Volume 60 - Issue 1 p. 69- 78
Background Stress and strain are parameters to describe respiratory mechanics during mechanical ventilation. Calculations of stress require invasive and difficult to perform esophageal pressure measurements. The hypothesis of the present study was: Can lung stress be reliably calculated based on non-invasive lung volume measurements, during a decremental Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) trial in mechanically ventilated patients with different diseases? Methods Data of 26 pressure-controlled ventilated patients admitted to the ICU with different lung conditions were retrospectively analyzed: 11 coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), 9 neurology, and 6 lung disorders. During a decremental PEEP trial (from 15 to 0 cmH2O in three steps) end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) measurements were performed at each PEEP step, without interruption of mechanical ventilation. Strain, specific elastance, and stress were calculated for each PEEP level. Elastance was calculated as delta PEEP divided by delta PEEP volume, whereas specific elastance is elastance times the FRC. Stress was calculated as specific elastance times the strain. Global strain was divided into dynamic (tidal volume) and static (PEEP) strain. Results Strain calculations based on FRC showed mainly changes in static component, whereas calculations based on EELV showed changes in both the static and dynamic component of strain. Stress calculated from EELV measurements was 24.0 ± 2.7 and 13.1 ± 3.8 cmH2O in the lung disorder group at 15 and 5 cmH2O PEEP. For the normal lungs, the stress values were 19.2 ± 3.2 and 10.9 ± 3.3 cmH2O, respectively. These values are comparable to earlier publications. Specific elastance calculations were comparable in patients with neurologic and lung disorders, and lower in the CABG group due to recruitment in this latter group. Conclusion Stress and strain can reliably be calculated at the bedside based on non-invasive EELV measurements during a decremental PEEP trial in patients with different diseases.
|Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica: an international journal of anaesthesiology and intensive care, pain and emergency medicine|
|Organisation||Department of Intensive Care|
Blankman, P, Hasan, D, Bikker, I.G, & Gommers, D.A.M.P.J. (2016). Lung stress and strain calculations in mechanically ventilated patients in the intensive care unit. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica: an international journal of anaesthesiology and intensive care, pain and emergency medicine, 60(1), 69–78. doi:10.1111/aas.12589