Aims: The aim of this study was to assess age-specific carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes and to investigate associations between cIMT, age, classical cardiovascular disease (CVD) and other risk factors. Methods: This study included a cross-sectional analysis of cIMT in 178 patients with type 1 diabetes and 208 healthy controls across age categories. In patients, the impact of gender, socio-economic status, ethnicity, current and historical body mass index, blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol on cIMT was studied in a retrospective follow-up cohort study. Results: Median cIMT was equally greater in patients versus controls across all age categories (P ≤. 0.03). Regression models in patients confirmed a lack of association between cIMT and classical CVD risk factors. Conclusions: Children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes showed greater cIMT than controls in all age categories. Increased cIMT did not seem to be consistently associated with classical adult CVD risk factors, adding to the current debate in pediatrics about the impact on classical CVD risk factors to the development of subclinical atherosclerosis in type 1 diabetes. Future studies are warranted to determine if cIMT could assist in predicting macrovascular complications of type 1 diabetes.

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Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
Department of Pediatrics

van der Heyden, J.C, Birnie, E, Bovenberg, S.A, Castro Cabezas, M, van der Meulen, N, Mul, D, … Aanstoot, H-J. (2016). Do traditional cardiovascular risk factors solely explain intima-media thickening in youth with type 1 diabetes?. Journal of Diabetes and its Complications, 30(6), 1137–1143. doi:10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2016.03.030