In this chapter we analyse the process of knowledge production between experts, bureaucrats and stakeholders. From our two in-depth Dutch case studies we conclude that the interplay between experts and bureaucrats is not very problematic in knowledge production, because of discipline congruence and institutionalised relations between the two in the field of water management. The interplay between stakeholder knowledge on the one hand and expert and bureaucratic knowledge on the other is more problematic and leads to problems of legitimate knowledge production and decision-making.