This chapter describes the surgeon's main goals when performing a potentially curative esophagectomy for esophageal cancer, regardless of the surgical approach that is chosen. The various indicators that have been identified to promote oncological control in open surgery will be discussed, including accurate preoperative staging, administration of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy, complete surgical resection, and extended lymphadenectomy. Finally, tools that help to prevent complications will be discussed as well as the clinical audits for quality control.