Aims: Few data document trends in cardiovascular (CV) risk-factors in patients with or without previous symptomatic CV disease. We assessed the prevalence and trends in (non) modifiable CV risk-factors, and the use of cardioprotective therapies in patients enrolled in coronary stent trials. Methods and results: This analysis included prospective data on 10,253 mainly European adults who were enrolled in 32 coronary stent studies between 1995 and 2006. Data was collected at the time of enrolment using a standardised patient clinical record form, and was analysed by considering three consecutive time periods: 1995-1997 (I), 1998-2002 (II) and 2003-2006 (III) rendering approximately equal numbers per period. Overall the proportion of active smokers remained constant (Period I to III: 28%, 27%, 21%, p=0.45), however the proportion increased in females below 50 years (about 2%/ year, R.RR: 1.20, P: 0.05 period III versus I). Prevalent diabetes increased (16%, 17%, 25%; p=0.029). The prevalence of a body-mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m 2 was high, but no trend was observed (69%, 68%, 70%; p=0.24). The proportion of patients with elevated blood pressure (i.e., ≥140/90 mmHg, in diabetes ≥130/80 mmHg) remained unchanged (55%, 50.%, 53%; p=0.22), despite an increase in the number of patients taking anti-hypertensive agents (84%, 89%, 90%; p=0.30). Conversely, the proportion of patients with elevated total cholesterol (i.e., ≥4.5 mmol/L) decreased (80%, 66%, 52%; p=0.002), which was consistent with the increase in patients taking lipid lowering drugs (32%, 62%, 69%; p=0.083). The portion of patients reaching therapeutic targets for blood lipids improved, but no improvement was seen in blood pressure control (p=0.29). Conclusions: There is an unmet clinical need in primary and secondary CV prevention in Europe. Patients requiring PCI are an important target population in whom lifestyle changes and aggressive secondary preventative measures should be aimed. Ultimately PCI should open the door towards optimising secondary prevention.

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Department of Epidemiology

Vranckx, P., Boersma, E., Garg, S., Valgimigli, M., van Es, G. A., Goedhart, D., & Serruys, P. (2011). Cardiovascular risk profile of patients included in stent trials; a pooled analysis of individual patient data from randomised clinical trials: Insights from 33 prospective stent trials in Europe. EuroIntervention (Vol. 7, pp. 859–871). Retrieved from