Tidal ventilation distribution during pressure-controlled ventilation and pressure support ventilation in post-cardiac surgery patients
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica: an international journal of anaesthesiology and intensive care, pain and emergency medicine , Volume 58 - Issue 8 p. 997- 1006
Background Inhomogeneous ventilation is an important contributor to ventilator-induced lung injury. Therefore, this study examines homogeneity of lung ventilation by means of electrical impedance tomography (EIT) measurements during pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) and pressure support ventilation (PSV) using the same ventilation pressures. Methods Twenty mechanically ventilated patients were studied after cardiac surgery. On arrival at the intensive care unit, ventilation distribution was measured with EIT just above the diaphragm for 15 min. After awakening, PCV was switched to PSV and EIT measurements were again recorded. Results Tidal impedance variation, a measure of tidal volume, increased during PSV compared with PCV, despite using the same ventilation pressures (P = 0.045). The distribution of tidal ventilation to the dependent lung region was more pronounced during PSV compared with PCV, especially during the first half of the inspiration. An even distribution of tidal ventilation between the dependent and non-dependent lung regions was seen during PCV at lower tidal volumes (< 8 ml/kg) and PSV at higher tidal volumes (≥ 8 ml/kg). In addition, the distribution of tidal ventilation was predominantly distributed to the dependent lung during PSV at low tidal volumes. Conclusion In post-cardiac surgery patients, PSV showed improved ventilation of the dependent lung region due to the contribution of the diaphragm activity, which is even more pronounced during lower assist levels.