Introduction: The mechanisms of early filter failure and clotting with different anticoagulation modalities during continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) are largely unknown. Methods: Citrate, heparin and no anticoagulation were compared. Blood was drawn pre- and post filter up to 720 min. Concentrations of the thrombin-antithrombin (TAT), activated protein C-protein C inhibitor (APC-PCI), and type I plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) were determined. Results: In case of early filter failure (<24 h), inlet concentrations of TAT and APC-PCI were higher over time, irrespective of anticoagulation. There was more production of APC-PCI and platelet-derived PAI-1 in the filter after 10 min in the heparin group than in other groups. In clotting filters, production of APC-PCI and PAI was also higher with heparin than citrate. Conclusion: Coagulation activation in plasma and inhibition of anticoagulation in plasma and filter may partly determine early CVVH filter failure due to clotting, particularly when heparin is used. Regional anticoagulation by citrate circumvents the inhibition of anticoagulation and fibrinolysis by platelet activation following heparin.

Acute kidney injury, Anticoagulation, Citrate versus heparin, Continuous renal replacement therapy, Filter survival, Patient outcome, Platelet activation,
Blood Purification
Department of Intensive Care

Schilder, L, Nurmohamed, S.A, ter Wee, P.M, Paauw, N.J, Girbes, A.R.J, Beishuizen, A, … Groeneveld, A.B.J. (2015). Coagulation, Fibrinolysis and Inhibitors in Failing Filters during Continuous Venovenous Hemofiltration in Critically Ill Patients with Acute Kidney Injury: Effect of Anticoagulation Modalities. Blood Purification, 39(4), 297–305. doi:10.1159/000380904