Although the advent of drug-eluting stents has reduced the rates of target vessel revascularization, there are observations of ongoing stent failure occurring very late after stent implantation and presenting as very late restenosis or as very late stent thrombosis. The de novo development of atherosclerosis within the neointimal region, called neoatherosclerosis, has been identified as one of the pathomechanisms of these observed late stent failures. The mechanisms of neoatherosclerosis development and its association with stent failure are currently the subject of intensive research. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an invasive imaging modality that allows us to visualize the micromorphology of coronary arteries with near-histological resolution, thus providing detailed assessment of the morphological characteristics of the neointima after stent implantation, including neoatherosclerosis. Several OCT studies have tried to provide in vivo insights in the mechanisms of neoatherosclerosis development and its association with late stent failure. This review summarizes the current insights into neoatherosclerosis obtained with OCT and discusses the association of neoatherosclerosis with late stent failure.

Atherosclerosis, Bare metal stents, Drug-eluting stents, Optical coherence tomography, Percutaneous coronary intervention,
Herz: kardiovaskulaere Erkraenkungen
Department of Cardiology

Zhang, B.-C, Karanasos, A, & Regar, E.S. (2015). OCT demonstrating neoatherosclerosis as part of the continuous process of coronary artery disease. Herz: kardiovaskulaere Erkraenkungen, 40(6), 845–854. doi:10.1007/s00059-015-4343-y