Moving beyond the deep and surface dichotomy; using Q Methodology to explore students’ approaches to studying
Teaching in Higher Education , Volume 21 - Issue 2 p. 207- 218
Student learning approaches research has been built upon the notions of deep and surface learning. Despite its status as part of the educational research canon, the dichotomy of deep/surface has been critiqued as constraining the debate surrounding student learning. Additionally, issues of content validity have been expressed concerning situational and contextual differences in its interpretation. Q Methodology was used as both a research method and an analytical technique for this study and has as its aim the exploration of subjectivity. The deep/surface dichotomy was not found in this study, but rather three unique types of study approaches. Moreover, though Q Methodology, new novel combinations of statements were able emerge and thus allowing the academic discussion to move beyond the deep and surface dichotomy.