The purpose of this study was to investigate how renal loss of both C-peptide and glucose during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) relate to and affect plasma-derived oral minimal model (OMM) indices. All individuals were recruited during family screening between August 2007 and January 2011 and underwent a 3.5-h OGTT, collecting nine plasma samples and urine during OGTT. We obtained the following three subgroups: normoglycemic, at risk, and T2D. We recruited South Asian and Caucasian families, and we report separate analyses if differences occurred. Plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide concentrations were analyzed as AUCs during OGTT, OMM estimate of renal C-peptide secretion, and OMM beta-cell and insulin sensitivity indices were calculated to obtain disposition indices. Post-glucose load glucose and C-peptide in urine were measured and related to plasma-based indices. Urinary glucose corresponded well with plasma glucose AUC (Cau r = 0.64, P < 0.01; SA r = 0.69, P < 0.01), SI (Cau r = −0.51, P < 0.01; SA r = −0.41, P < 0.01), Φdynamic (Cau r = −0.41, P < 0.01; SA r = −0.57, P < 0.01), and Φoral (Cau r = −0.61, P < 0.01; SA r = −0.73, P < 0.01). Urinary C-peptide corresponded well to plasma C-peptide AUC (Cau r = 0.45, P < 0.01; SA r = 0.33, P < 0.05) and OMM estimate of renal C-peptide secretion (r = 0.42, P < 0.01). In general, glucose excretion plasma threshold for the presence of glucose in urine was ~10–10.5 mmol L−1 in non-T2D individuals, but not measurable in T2D individuals. Renal glucose secretion during OGTT did not influence OMM indices in general nor in T2D patients (renal clearance range 0–2.1 %, with median 0.2 % of plasma glucose AUC). C-indices of urinary glucose to detect various stages of glucose intolerance were excellent (Cau 0.83–0.98; SA 0.75–0.89). The limited role of renal glucose secretion validates the neglecting of urinary glucose secretion in kinetic models of glucose homeostasis using plasma glucose concentrations. Both C-peptide and glucose in urine collected during OGTT might be used as non-invasive measures for endogenous insulin secretion and glucose tolerance state.

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Department of Internal Medicine

Jainandunsing, S., Wattimena, J., Rietveld, T., van Miert, J., Sijbrands, E., & de Rooij, F. (2016). Post-glucose-load urinary C-peptide and glucose concentration obtained during OGTT do not affect oral minimal model-based plasma indices. Endocrine, 52(2), 253–262. doi:10.1007/s12020-015-0765-9