Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are under development as an immunomodulatory therapy. The anticipated immunomodulatory effects of MSC are broad, from direct inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation, induction of regulatory T and B cells, to resetting the immune system via a hit-and-run principle. There are endless flavors of MSC. Differences between MSC are originating from donors variation, differences in tissue of origin, the effects of culture conditions, and expansion time. Even standard culture conditions change the properties of MSC dramatically and generate MSC that only remotely resemble their in vivo counterparts. Adjustments in culture protocols can further emphasize properties of interest in MSC, thereby generating cells fitted for specific purposes. Culture improved immunomodulatory MSC can be designed to target particular immune disorders. In this review, we describe the observed and the desired immunomodulatory effects of MSC and propose approaches how MSC with optimal immunomodulatory properties can be developed.

Additional Metadata
Keywords Cell therapy, Immunomodulation, Mesenchymal stem cell, Optimization, Secretome
Persistent URL,
Journal Frontiers in Immunology
de Witte, S.F.H, Franquesa, M, Baan, C.C, & Hoogduijn, M.J. (2016). Toward development of imesenchymal stem cells for immunomodulatory therapy. Frontiers in Immunology (Vol. 6). doi:10.3389/fimmu.2015.00648