In this chapter the use of prostate specifi c antigen (PSA) as a tumor marker for prostate cancer is discussed. The chapter provides an overview of biological and clinical aspects of PSA. The main drawback of total PSA (tPSA) is its lack of specifi city for prostate cancer which leads to unnecessary biopsies. Moreover, PSA-testing poses a risk of overdiagnosis and subsequent overtreatment. Many PSA-based markers have been developed to improve the performance characteristics of tPSA. As well as different molecular subforms of tPSA, such as proPSA (pPSA) and free PSA (fPSA), and PSA derived kinetics as PSA-velocity (PSAV) and PSAdoubling time (PSADT). The prostate health index (phi), PSA-density (PSAD) and the contribution of non PSA-based markers such as the urinary transcripts of PCA3 and TMPRSS-ERG fusion are also discussed. To enable further risk stratifi cation tumor markers are often combined with clinical data (e.g. outcome of DRE) in so-called nomograms. Currently the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the detection and staging of prostate cancer is being explored.

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Department of Urology

Salman, J., Schoots, I., Carlsson, S., Jenster, G., & Roobol-Bouts, M. (2015). Prostate specific antigen as a tumor marker in prostate cancer. doi:10.1007/978-94-017-7215-0_7