Despite its widespread use, disagreement remains regarding the structure of the Consideration of Future Consequences Scale (CFCS). In particular there is disagreement regarding whether the scale assesses future orientation as a unidimensional or multidimensional (immediate and future) construct. Using 2 samples of high school students in the United Kingdom, 4 models were tested. The totality of results including item loadings, goodness-of-fit indexes, and reliability estimates all supported the bifactor model, suggesting that the 2 hypothesized factors are better understood as grouping or method factors rather than as representative of latent constructs. Accordingly this study supports the unidimensionality of the CFCS and the scoring of all 12 items to produce a global future orientation score. Researchers intending to use the CFCS, and those with existing data, are encouraged to examine a bifactor solution for the scale.

Additional Metadata
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1080/00223891.2014.999338, hdl.handle.net/1765/84389
Journal Journal of Personality Assessment
Citation
Mckay, M.T, Morgan, G.B, van Exel, N.J.A, & Worrell, F.C. (2015). Back to "the future": Evidence of a bifactor solution for scores on the Consideration of future consequences scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 97(4), 395–402. doi:10.1080/00223891.2014.999338