The biliary malignancies that are reviewed here are gallbladder cancer (GBC), intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IHC), and perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (PHC). The focus is on outcomes after potentially curative resection of biliary malignancies. Key outcomes are postoperative mortality, median and 5-year overall survival (OS), recurrence-free survival, and recurrence patterns. Poor prognostic factors for recurrence and survival as well as prognostic models are also discussed. The incidence of biliary malignancies in the United States is about 5 in 100,000. Postoperative mortality for resection of GBC and IHC is similar to that of liver resections for other indications. However, 90 day postoperative mortality after liver resection for PHC is about 10%. For GBC, median OS depends strongly on the T-stage and ranges from 8 months (pT3) to 79 months (pT1b). Median OS after resection for IHC is about 30 months, and for PHC about 38 months. The majority of patients with biliary malignancies develop a recurrence after resection. Patients with GBC recur early with a median time to recurrence of 12 months, versus about 20 months for IHC and PHC. In patients with resected IHC or PHC locoregional recurrence was the only site of recurrence in about 60% of patients, versus 15% in patients with GBC. Poor prognostic factors after resection of all biliary malignancies include the presence of lymph node metastasis, a positive surgical resection margin, and moderate or poor tumor differentiation. Several prognostic nomograms have been developed to predict long-term outcomes of biliary cancer resection.

, , ,,
Journal of Surgical Oncology
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Groot Koerkamp, B., & Fong, Y. (2014). Outcomes in biliary malignancy. In Journal of Surgical Oncology (Vol. 110, pp. 585–591). doi:10.1002/jso.23762