Background In Europe, population-based data concerning perioperative treatment (PT) and radical cystectomy (RC) are lacking. We assessed temporal trends in PT (neoadjuvant chemotherapy [NAC], neoadjuvant radiotherapy [NAR], adjuvant chemotherapy [AC], adjuvant radiotherapy [AR]) and RC in the Netherlands and identified patients' and hospital characteristics associated with PT.
Methods This nationwide, retrospective, population-based study included cTa/is, T1-4, N0-3, M0-1 bladder cancer patients from the Netherlands Cancer Registry who underwent RC with curative intent between 1995 and 2013. PT-administration over time was compared with chi-square tests. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify characteristics associated with PT usage. The sub-groups cT2-4N0M0 and cT2-4, N0 or NX, M0 or MX were separately analysed.
Results In total, 10,338 patients met inclusion criteria. Eighty-six percent did not receive PT, 7.0% received NAC (or induction chemotherapy [IC]), 3.2% NAR, 1.8% AC, and 2.1% AR. NAC usage increased from 0.6% in 1995 to 21% in 2013 (p < 0.001), application of NAR decreased from 15% to 0.4% (p < 0.001). Usage of AC and AR in 2013 was <1.5%. Comparable temporal trends were found in 6032 patients staged cT2-4N0M0. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that younger age, ≥cT3, ≥cN1 and treatment in academic/teaching hospitals were associated with NAC or IC (all p < 0.05).
Conclusions The increase in NAC administration in the Netherlands reflects a slow but steady adoption of evidence-based guidelines over the last two decades. Considerable variability in patients' and hospital characteristics in the likelihood of receiving NAC exists. Conversely, NAR, AR and AC are hardly administered anymore.

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Keywords Adjuvant, Bladder, Cancer, Chemotherapy, Cystectomy, Neoadjuvant, Radiotherapy
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Journal European Journal of Cancer
Hermans, T.J.N, Fransen Van De Putte, E.E, Horenblas, S, Lemmens, V.E.P.P, Aben, K.K.H, van der Heijden, M.S, … van Rhijn, B.W.G. (2016). Perioperative treatment and radical cystectomy for bladder cancer - A population based trend analysis of 10,338 patients in the Netherlands. European Journal of Cancer (Vol. 54, pp. 18–26). doi:10.1016/j.ejca.2015.11.006