In girls and adolescents with Turner syndrome (TS), is there a correlation between serum AMH levels and karyotype, spontaneous puberty and other biochemical markers of ovarian function, or growth hormone (GH) therapy? Serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) correlates with karyotype, pubertal development, LH, FSH and are measurable in a higher percentage of TS patients under GH therapy. Most girls with TS suffer from incomplete sexual development, premature ovarian failure and infertility due to abnormal ovarian folliculogenesis. Serum AMH levels reflect the ovarian reserve in females, even in childhood. Cross-sectional study investigating 270 karyotype proven TS patients aged 0-20 years between 2009 and 2010. Studies were conducted at three University Children's hospitals in Europe. Main outcome measures were clinical data concerning pubertal development as well as laboratory data including karyotype, serum AMH, LH, FSH, estradiol (E2), inhibin B and IGF. RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Serum AMH was detectable in 21.9% of all TS girls and correlated strongly with karyotypes. A measurable serum AMH was found in 77% of TS girls with karyotype 45,X/46,XX, in 25% with 'other' karyotypes and in only 10% of 45,X TS girls. A strong relationship was also observed for measurable serum AMH and signs of spontaneous puberty such as breast development [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 19.3; 95% CI 2.1-175.6; P = 0.009] and menarche (crude OR 47.6; 95% CI 4.8-472.9; P = 0.001). Serum AMH correlated negatively with FSH and LH, but did not correlate with E2 and inhibin B. GH therapy increased the odds of having measurable AMH in TS (adjusted OR 4.1; 95% CI 1.9-8.8; P < 0.001). The cross-sectional design of the study does not allow longitudinal interpretation of the data; for that further studies are needed. High percentage of non-measurable AMH levels in the cohort of TS require categorized analysis.
Human Reproduction
Department of Internal Medicine

Visser, J., Hokken-Koelega, A., Zandwijken, G., Limacher, A., Ranke, M., & Flück, C. (2013). Anti-Müllerian hormone levels in girls and adolescents with Turner syndrome are related to karyotype, pubertal development and growth hormone treatment. Human Reproduction, 28(7), 1899–1907. Retrieved from