Around 1900, small Dutch bread bakeries faced challenges in three areas: competition from mechanised bread factories, labour circumstances (wages and night working), and bread quality standards. From 1900 to 1930, bread bakers succeeded in mechanising and laid the foundations for the modernisation of their sector. This article investigates which knowledge sources were available for bakers during this process. It focuses on the role of two intermediaries and thereby illustrates how industrial associations can contribute to innovation. The Institute for Milling and Baking functioned as a knowledge centre for bakeries, consumers, suppliers and the state, whereas the Dutch Bakers Association organised the network in which knowledge could be circulated.
Tijdschrift voor Sociale en Economische Geschiedenis
Erasmus University Rotterdam

Tai, S.-Y. T. T., Davids, M., & Lintsen, H. (2013). How did dutch bread bakers modernise in the early twentieth century? The role of the dutch bakers association and the institute for milling and baking. Tijdschrift voor Sociale en Economische Geschiedenis, 10(3), 55–79. Retrieved from