The identification of geographic population structure and genetic ancestry on the basis of a minimal set of genetic markers is desirable for a wide range of applications in medical and forensic sciences. However, the absence of sharp discontinuities in the neutral genetic diversity among human populations implies that, in practice, a large number of neutral markers will be required to identify the genetic ancestry of one individual. We showed that it is possible to reduce the amount of markers required for detecting continental population structure to only 10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), by applying a newly developed ascertainment algorithm to Affymetrix GeneChip Mapping 10K SNP array data that we obtained from samples of globally dispersed human individuals (the Y Chromosome Consortium panel). Furthermore, this set of SNPs was able to recover the genetic ancestry of individuals from all four continents represented in the original data set when applied to an independent, much larger, worldwide population data set (Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain-Human Genome Diversity Project Cell Line Panel). Finally, we provide evidence that the unusual patterns of genetic variation we observed at the respective genomic regions surrounding the five most informative SNPs is in agreement with local positive selection being the explanation for the striking SNP allele-frequency differences we found between continental groups of human populations.

*Genetics, Population, *Genome, Human, *Geography, *Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide, Algorithms, Humans, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
American Journal of Human Genetics
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Lao Grueso, O, van Duijn, K, Kersbergen, P, de Knijff, P, & Kayser, M.H. (2006). Proportioning whole-genome single-nucleotide-polymorphism diversity for the identification of geographic population structure and genetic ancestry. American Journal of Human Genetics. Retrieved from