Type II cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGKII) isolated from pig intestinal brush borders and type I alpha cGK (cGKI) purified from bovine lung were compared for their ability to activate the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-Cl- channel in excised, inside-out membrane patches from NIH-3T3 fibroblasts and from a rat intestinal cell line (IEC-CF7) stably expressing recombinant CFTR. In both cell models, in the presence of cGMP and ATP, cGKII was found to mimic the effect of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (cAK) on opening CFTR-Cl-channels, albeit with different kinetics (2-3-min lag time, reduced rate of activation). By contrast, cGKI or a monomeric cGKI catalytic fragment was incapable of opening CFTR-Cl- channels and also failed to potentiate cGKII activation of the channels. The cAK activation but not the cGKII activation was blocked by a cAK inhibitor peptide. The slow activation by cGKII could not be ascribed to counteracting protein phosphatases, since neither calyculin A, a potent inhibitor of phosphatase 1 and 2A, nor ATP gamma S (adenosine 5'-O-(thiotriphosphate)), producing stable thiophosphorylation, was able to enhance the activation kinetics. Channels preactivated by cGKII closed instantaneously upon removal of ATP and kinase but reopened in the presence of ATP alone. Paradoxically, immunoprecipitated CFTR or CF-2, a cloned R domain fragment of CFTR (amino acids 645-835) could be phosphorylated to a similar extent with only minor kinetic differences by both isotypes of cGK. Phosphopeptide maps of CF-2 and CFTR, however, revealed very subtle differences in site-specificity between the cGK isoforms. These results indicate that cGKII, in contrast to cGKI alpha, is a potential activator of chloride transport in CFTR-expressing cell types.

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Journal of Biological Chemistry
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

French, P., Bijman, J., Edixhoven, M., Vaandrager, A., Scholte, B., Lohmann, S., … de Jonge, H. (1995). Isotype-specific activation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator-chloride channels by cGMP-dependent protein kinase II. Journal of Biological Chemistry. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1765/8536