The multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin (AM [administered twice daily in a 25-mg/kg of body weight intravenous dose]) in 17 preterm infants (11 males; gestational age, 29 +/- 1.9 weeks; birth weight, 1,175 +/- 278 g) were evaluated on day 3 of life. Blood samples were collected from an arterial catheter at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 h after the intravenous dose. A high-performance liquid chromatography method was used to determine AM concentrations in serum. AM pharmacokinetics followed a one-compartment open model. The glomerular filtration rates of all patients were simultaneously studied by means of the 24-h continuous inulin infusion technique. The elimination half-life, apparent volume of distribution, and total body clearance of AM (mean +/- standard deviation) were 6.7 +/- 1.7 h, 584 +/- 173 ml, and 62.4 +/- 23.3 ml/h, respectively. The mean (+/- standard deviation) AM peak and trough levels were 53.6 +/- 9.1 and 16.0 +/- 4.9 mg/liter, respectively. All infants had a serum trough level above 5 mg/liter. The total body clearance and apparent volume of distribution of AM and the clearance of inulin increased significantly with increasing gestational age. The total body clearance of AM (1.0 +/- 0.4 ml/min) and the clearance of inulin (1.0 +/- 0.3 ml/min) were similar. The total body clearance of AM increased significantly with increasing clearance of inulin. We conclude that an AM dose of 25 mg/kg every 12 h given to preterm infants in the first week of life with gestational ages of less than 32 weeks results in serum levels well above the MIC for major microorganisms involved in neonatal infections.

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Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Huisman-de Boer, J. J., van den Anker, J., Vogel, M., Goessens, W., Schoemaker, R., & de Groot, R. (1995). Amoxicillin pharmacokinetics in preterm infants with gestational ages of less than 32 weeks. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. Retrieved from