In this chapter the Dutch PHARMO (PHARmacoMOrbidity linkage system), the Danish OPED (Odense University Pharmacoepidemiologic Database), and the Danish AUPD (Aarhus University Prescription Database) are discussed as selected examples of pharmacy-based medical linkage systems. Each system uses its own unique patient identifiers to link exposure (pharmacy dispensing), outcomes, and other relevant characteristics and events. The design of these databases, their strengths, weaknesses, similarities, and differences are presented. The content of the drug exposure files is discussed, as well as methods of linking to other sources, including cancer registries, hospital databases, clinical laboratories, and birth registries. Examples of how these linkages have been used in pharmacoepidemiologic, epidemiologic, and outcomes studies are provided.

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Erasmus School of Health Policy & Management (ESHPM)

Herings, R.M.C, & Pedersen, L. (2012). Pharmacy-Based Medical Record Linkage Systems. doi:10.1002/9781119959946.ch18