For a long time it has been known that both hypo-and hyperthyroidism are associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. In recent years, it has also become clear that minor variations in thyroid function, including subclinical dysfunction and variation in thyroid function within the reference range, can have important effects on clinical endpoints, such as bone mineral density, depression, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular mortality. Serum thyroid parameters show substantial interindividual variability, whereas the intraindividual variability lies within a narrow range. This suggests that every individual has a unique hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis setpoint that is mainly determined by genetic factors, and this heritability has been estimated to be 40-60%. Various mutations in thyroid hormone pathway genes have been identified in persons with thyroid dysfunction or altered thyroid function tests. Because these causes are rare, many candidate gene and linkage studies have been performed over the years to identify more common variants (polymorphisms) associated with thyroid (dys)function, but only a limited number of consistent associations have been found. However, in the past 5 years, advances in genetic research have led to the identification of a large number of new candidate genes. In this review, we provide an overview of the current knowledge about the polygenic basis of thyroid (dys)function. This includes new candidate genes identifiedbygenome-wideapproaches,whatinsights these genes provide into the genetic basis of thyroid (dys)function, and which new techniques will help to further decipher the genetic basis of thyroid (dys)function in the near future.,
Endocrine Reviews
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Medici, M., Visser, E., Visser, T., & Peeters, R. (2015). Genetic determination of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis: Where do we stand?. Endocrine Reviews, 36(2), 214–244. doi: