Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. Besides well-known environmental factors such as smoking and overconsumption of saturated fat, genetic factors contribute to the risk of developing CVD. In addition, genetic factors may modify both the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of cardiovascular drugs (pharmacogenetics). The most important genetic polymorphisms that influence response to cardiovascular treatment are highlighted, with regard to effectiveness and risk of adverse reactions. Insight into individual genetic risk factors for disease and treatment response could lead to "personalized medicine" in the future.

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Dialogues in Cardiovascular Medicine
Department of Internal Medicine

de Keyser, C.E, Eijgelsheim, M, Uitterlinden, A.G, & Stricker, B.H.Ch. (2012). Pharmacogenetics of response to cardiovascular drug therapy: What is the current state of knowledge?. Dialogues in Cardiovascular Medicine, 17(4), 281–292. Retrieved from