In most Western countries, clinical management of disorders of sex development (DSD), including ambiguous genitalia, begins at diagnosis soon after birth. For many Indonesian patients born with ambiguous genitalia, limited medical treatment is available. Consequently, affected individuals are raised with ambiguous genitalia and atypical secondary sex characteristics. We investigated gender identity and gender role behavior in 118 Indonesian subjects (77 males, 41 females) with different types of DSD in comparison with 118 healthy controls matched for gender, age, and residential setting (rural, suburban, or urban). In Study 1, we report on methodological aspects of the investigation, including scale adaptation, pilot testing, and determining reliability and validity of measures. In Study 2, we report on gender development in 60 children (42 boys, 18 girls), 24 adolescents (15 boys, 9 girls), and 34 adults (19 men, 15 women) with DSD. The majority of participants with DSD never received any medical or surgical treatment prior to this study. We observed a gender change in all age groups, with the greatest incidence in adults. Among patients who changed, most changed from female to male, possessed a 46,XY karyotype, and had experienced significant masculinization during life. Gender identity confusion and cross-gender behavior was more frequently observed in children with DSD raised as girls compared to boys. Puberty and associated masculinization were related to gender problems in individuals with 46,XY DSD raised female. An integrated clinical and psychological follow-up on gender outcome is necessary prior to puberty and adulthood.

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Archives of Sexual Behavior
Erasmus School of Health Policy & Management (ESHPM)

Ediati, A., Juniarto, A., Birnie, E., Drop, S., Faradz, S., & Dessens, A. (2015). Gender Development in Indonesian Children, Adolescents, and Adults with Disorders of Sex Development. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 44(5), 1339–1361. doi:10.1007/s10508-015-0493-5