Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia can be complicated by invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). In 2008, liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) inhalation was shown to prevent IPA in a placebo-controlled trial. Patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) are the subset of haematology patients at high risk for IPA. In 2008, L-AmB inhalation prophylaxis became the standard of care for all AML patients in Erasmus MC. In this study, the efficacy and cost effectiveness of L-AmB inhalation were evaluated in a prospective cohort of AML patients. In total, 127 consecutive AML patients received chemotherapy and prophylac-tically inhaled L-AmB during their first and second chemotherapy cycles; 108 patients treated for AML at the same sites from 2005-2008 served as controls. A standardised diagnostic protocol was used and probable/proven IPA served as the primary endpoint. Diagnostic and therapeutic costs were also comprehensively analysed and compared. A significant decrease in probable/proven IPA in the L-AmB inhalation group was observed (L-AmB 9.5% vs. controls 23.4%; P=0.0064). Systemic antifungal therapy given at any time during the entire AML therapy decreased from 52.8% to 29.9%. Per-patient equipment and drug costs for L-AmB inhalation (1292 D/patient) were more than compensated for by a decrease in costs for diagnostics and therapeutic voriconazole use (-1816 D/patient). No serious adverse events related to L-AmB inhalation were observed. In an unselected AML patient group, L-AmB inhalation resulted in a significant and substantial decrease in IPA and was cost saving. Now that azole resistance is more frequent, non-azole-based prophylaxis may become an attractive strategy.

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Keywords Aerosolised liposomal amphotericin B, Cost effectiveness, Inhalation, Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, Prophylaxis
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Journal International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Chong, G.-L.M, Broekman, F, Polinder, S, Doorduijn, J.K, Lugtenburg, P.J, Verbon, A, … Rijnders, B.J.A. (2015). Aerosolised liposomal amphotericin B to prevent aspergillosis in acute Myeloid Leukaemia: Efficacy and cost effectiveness in real-life. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 46(1), 82–87. doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2015.02.023