Our understanding of the genetic control of skeletogenesis and bone remodeling is expanding, and normally, bone resorption and bone formation are well balanced through regulation by hormones, growth factors, and cytokines. Osteoporosis is considered a systemic disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue. Consequent increased bone fragility results in higher fracture risk. The most common osteoporotic fractures are located in the spine, and they form a significant health issue. A large variety of systemic diseases are associated with risk of osteoporotic vertebral fractures, illustrating its multifactorial etiology. Prevalences of these conditions vary from common to extremely rare, and incidence peaks differ according to etiology. This review appreciates different aspects of osteoporotic vertebral fractures as part of systemic disease, including genetic, immunologic, inflammatory, metabolic, and endocrine pathways. It seems impossible to be all-comprehensive on this topic; nevertheless, we hope to provide a reasonably thorough overview. Plenty remains to be elucidated in this field, identifying even more associated diseases and further exposing pathophysiological mechanisms underlying osteoporotic vertebral fractures.

Genetics, Osteoporosis, Spine, Systemic disease, Vertebral fracture risk
dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jocd.2015.08.012, hdl.handle.net/1765/86159
Journal of Clinical Densitometry
no subscription; no full text yet
Department of Radiology

Oei, L, Zillikens, M.C, Rivadeneira Ramirez, F, & Oei, E.H.G. (2015). Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures as Part of Systemic Disease. Journal of Clinical Densitometry, 19(1), 70–80. doi:10.1016/j.jocd.2015.08.012