Purpose: To evaluate the utility of percentage of free serum PSA (%fPSA) as a predictor of adverse rebiopsy findings, treatment change and radical prostatectomy (RP) findings in a prospective active surveillance (AS) trial. Methods: Patients enrolled in the global PRIAS study with baseline %fPSA available were included. Putative baseline predictors (e.g. PSA, %fPSA) of adverse rebiopsy findings were explored using logistic regression analysis. Association of variables with treatment change and RP findings over time were evaluated with Cox regression analysis. Active treatment-free survival was assessed with a Kaplan–Meier method. Results: Of 3701 patients recruited to PRIAS, 939 had %fPSA measured at study entry. Four hundred and thirty-eight of them had %fPSA available after 1 year. Median follow-up was 17.2 months. First rebiopsy results were available for 595 patients and of those, 144 (24.2 %) had adverse findings. A total of 283 (30.1 %) patients discontinued surveillance, of those 181 (64.0 %) due to protocol-based reasons. Although median %fPSA values were significantly lower in patients who changed treatment, according to the multivariate regression analysis, initial %fPSA value was not predictive for treatment change or adverse rebiopsy findings. However, the probability of discontinuing AS was significantly lower in patients with “favourable” initial %fPSA characteristics and %fPSA during follow-up (initial %fPSA ≥15 and positive %fPSA velocity) compared to those with “adverse” %fPSA characteristics (initial %fPSA <15 and negative %fPSA velocity). Conclusions: Diagnostic %fPSA provides no additional prognostic value when compared to other predictors already in use in AS protocols. However, %fPSA velocity during surveillance may aid in predicting the probability for future treatment change.

Active surveillance, Free prostate-specific antigen, Prostate cancer, Prostate-specific antigen
dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00345-015-1542-3, hdl.handle.net/1765/86193
World Journal of Urology
Department of Urology

Vasarainen, H, Salman, J, Salminen, H, Valdagni, R, Pickles, T, Bangma, C.H, … Rannikko, A.S. (2015). Predictive role of free prostate-specific antigen in a prospective active surveillance program (PRIAS). World Journal of Urology, 33(11), 1735–1740. doi:10.1007/s00345-015-1542-3