Impact of gas(less) laparoscopy and laparotomy on peritoneal tumor growth and abdominal wall metastases
OBJECTIVE: A tumor model in the rat was used to study peritoneal tumor growth and abdominal wall metastases after carbon dioxide (CO2) pneumoperitoneum, gasless laparoscopy, and laparotomy. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The role of laparoscopic resection of cancer is under debate. Insufflation of the peritoneal cavity with CO2 is believed to be a causative factor in the development of abdominal wall metastases after laparoscopic resection of malignant tumors. METHODS: In the solid tumor model, a lump of 350-mg CC-531 tumor cells was placed intraperitoneally in rats having CO2 pneumoperitoneum (n = 8), gasless laparoscopy (n = 8), or conventional laparotomy (n = 8). After 20 minutes, the solid tumor was removed through a laparoscopic port or through the laparotomy. In the cell seeding model, 5 x 10(5) CC-531 cells were injected intraperitoneally before CO2 pneumoperitoneum (n = 12), gasless laparoscopy (n = 12), or laparotomy (n = 12). All operative procedures lasted 20 minutes. After 6 weeks, in the solid tumor model and after 4 weeks in the cell seeding model, tumor growth was scored semiquantitatively. All results were analyzed using the analysis of variance. RESULTS: In the solid tumor model, peritoneal tumor growth in the laparotomy group was greater than in the CO2 pneumoperitoneum group (p < 0.01). Peritoneal tumor growth in the CO2 group was greater than in the gasless group (p < 0.01). The size of abdominal wall metastases was greater at the port site of extraction of the tumor than at the other port sites (p < 0.001). In the cell seeding model, peritoneal tumor growth was greater after laparotomy in comparison to CO2 pneumoperitoneum (p < 0.02). Peritoneal tumor growth in the CO2 group was greater than in the gasless group (p < 0.01). The port site metastases in the CO2 group were greater than in the gasless group (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The following conclusions can be made: 1) that direct contact between solid tumor and the port site enhances local tumor growth, 2) that laparoscopy is associated with less intraperitoneal tumor growth than laparotomy, and 3) that insufflation of CO2 promotes tumor growth at the peritoneum and is associated with greater abdominal wall metastases than gasless laparoscopy.